Eugenics

What is the issue?

 
This page is part of a series of articles summarising key and interrelated issues for the intersex movement in Australia, and our work:

Medicine regards intersex traits as “disorders of sex development” (“DSDs”). This framing of intersex variations promotes the idea that an intersex variation is undesirable, even though we are capable of living happy, fulfilling lives. We believe that it is stigma that is harmful to intersex people, and not bodily diversity itself.

Many intersex traits are genetic and, over time, an increasing number of genetic causes for intersex traits are being discovered. The rationales for the elimination of intersex traits via genetic screening technologies frequently mirror the rationales for postnatal genital and gonadal surgeries – that is, they are grounded in the idea that it is wrong to grow up with atypical sex characteristics.

In many cases, intersex traits are considered acceptable for elimination from the gene pool, and they may be offered to families and siblings of individuals with an identified intersex trait. IVF and other forms of genetic screening may eliminate sex chromosome variations. Examples include:

  • Androgen insensitivity, 5α-reductase deficiency and 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency can be determined via specific tests that may be proposed if siblings or family members have a relevant diagnosis. These traits appear to be considered suitable for elimination, but there are no substantive health or quality of life factors justifying elimination other than risk of forced medical interventions (for which we read risk of stigmatisation) to underpin these rationales (Carpenter, 2018a).
  • Sex chromosome variations, such as 47XXY (Klinefelter) and 45X0 (Turners) can be established via IVF and other tests. These traits are sometimes associated with cognitive and physical health issues, for example, 47XXY is associated with hypogonadism and a range of other issues, but there are low overall rates of diagnosis for this variation (Gravholt and others 2018; Herlihy and others, 2011). Low rates of diagnosis may be linked to varying expression of the trait. Sex chromosome variations are also associated with higher rates of miscarriage.
  • In the case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, prenatal treatment with dexamethasone may be offered to minimise physical expression of the trait. This treatment is controversial as it has been directly associated with consequences for the future child’s behaviour and sexual orientation (Nimkarn and New, 2010; Dreger and others, 2012), cognitive development (Dreger and others, 2012; Hirvikoski and others, 2012) and fertility (Poulain and others, 2012). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be associated with salt wasting, which is potentially fatal if not treated.
  • There is a long history of clinical research into the prenatal or genetic origins of sexual orientation and gender identity, much of it drawing directly upon research on variations of sex characteristics or problematising sexual orientation or gender identity (for example, Meyer-Bahlburg, 1990; Nimkarn and New, 2010). These issues consequently have implications for other sexual and gender minorities (Sparrow, 2013; Behrmann and Ravitsky, 2013).

Genetic screening technologies are also becoming cheaper and more widespread.

Associated with the growth of the intersex movement, more families and children are becoming open about their experience, and more parents are declining medical interventions on their children. More children are growing up knowing about their bodies – including in Australia, and including children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and salt wasting (Lohman and Lohman, 2018; Compton, 2018; Burgess, 2015; Carpenter, 2018b).

What do we know about practices in Australia?

Millions of dollars of Australian research funds go towards discovery of genetic causes of intersex variations. Rationales for such research have included “psychological trauma” (University of Queensland, undated), yet no public funds support intersex-led peer and family support to address this issue.

Medicine and National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines (2017) treat intersex variations in the same way as other traits considered to be genetic disorders. In some parts of the world such as the UK (Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority, undated), a list is maintained of conditions acceptable for elimination, and this includes many intersex traits.

Prenatal dexamethasone was promoted via a parent support group prior to a 2013 Senate inquiry into involuntary or coerced sterilisation. We raised ethical concerns about the impact of this treatment and the Senate Community Affairs References Committee (2013) recommended that prenatal dexamethasone should “only take place as part of research projects that have ethics approval and patient follow-up protocols”.

As prenatal and preconception screening become cheaper and more widespread, we fear that more and more prospective parents will unnecessarily rule out having a child with an intersex variation. We know that parents respond to the information they are provided and the context that it is provided in. We know that access to affirmative information and peer and family support is extremely limited.

Our position

Our position is grounded in the 2017 Darlington Statement, a community consensus statement by intersex organisations and advocates in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand:

25. We call for an end to the use of IVF and other forms of genetic selection to de-select variations of sex characteristics.

26. We call for access to reproductive services and fertility counselling for all intersex people, with protection of our reproductive autonomy, regardless of whether or not our capacity for fertility is considered to be in line with our legal sex.

We also call for research to reflect community priorities:

30. We call for more research, including clinical, sociological and psychological research, led by community input. Clinical research, including longitudinal research, requires true, non-medicalised controls.

Our position on genetic technologies is also reflected in the 2017 Yogyakarta Principles plus 10, “Relating to the Rights to Equality and Non-Discrimination (Principle 2)”, states shall:

L) Combat the practice of prenatal selection on the basis of sex characteristics, including by addressing the root causes of discrimination against persons on the basis of sex, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and sex characteristics, and by carrying out awareness-raising activities on the detrimental impact of prenatal selection on these grounds;

M) Take measures to address discriminatory attitudes and practices on the basis of sex, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and sex characteristics in relation to the application of prenatal treatments and genetic modification technologies.

As with gender-biased sex selection, these statements and priorities are underpinned by a right to freedom from discrimination established in international human rights conventions.

What have we done about it?

We lobby for resourcing for peer and family support, and for systemic advocacy. We have provided training for students of genetic counselling since 2015, and can provide similar training for other specialisms. We engage with institutions that are responsible for policy and practice in this field.

  • We have an ongoing interest in the work of Mackenzie’s Mission, a new preconception screening program that is reviewing which genetic traits to test for
  • In July 2016, we published a comment on the sponsorship of “LGBTI” events by institutions that eliminate intersex traits
  • Morgan Carpenter has written on Intersex-related research must have direct input from intersex community, in the Star Observer, October 2015
  • In 2015, we made a submission on the Review of Part B of the Ethical Guidelines for the Use of Assisted Reproductive Technology in Clinical Practice and Research, September 2015
  • In 2015, we made a detailed submission on the Review of Part B of the Ethical Guidelines for the Use of Assisted Reproductive Technology in Clinical Practice and Research, 2007
  • In 2013, and while opposing the pathologisation of intersex traits as “DSDs”, Morgan Carpenter formally reviewed a “DSD genetics” website, detailing the genetic basis for many intersex traits.
  • In 2013, we raised issues about the use of prenatal treatments for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in our first submission to a Senate inquiry on involuntary or forced sterilisation. The Senate committee recommended that such interventions “only take place as part of research projects that have ethics approval and patient follow-up protocols”.

Further reading

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Intersex Trust Aotearoa New Zealand, Organisation Intersex International Australia, Eve Black, Kylie Bond, Tony Briffa, Morgan Carpenter, et al. 2017. ‘Darlington Statement’. Sydney, New South Wales.

Australian Genomics Health Alliance. 2018. ‘Australian Genomics – Mackenzie’s Mission’. 2018.

Behrmann, Jason, and Vardit Ravitsky. 2013. ‘Queer Liberation, Not Elimination: Why Selecting Against Intersex Is Not “Straight” Forward’. The American Journal of Bioethics 13 (10): 39–41.

Burgess, Minna. 2015. ‘Baby M’s Story’. Brisbane & Gold Coast Maternity, Newborn, Baby & Family Photography by Minna Burgess (blog). 12 August 2015.

Carpenter, Morgan. 2015. ‘Intersex-Related Research Must Have Direct Input from Intersex Community’. Star Observer, 21 October 2015.

Carpenter, Morgan. 2016. ‘LGBTI Sponsorship and the Elimination of Intersex Traits’. OII Australia – Intersex Australia. 10 July 2016.

Carpenter, Morgan. 2018a. ‘Intersex Variations, Human Rights, and the International Classification of Diseases’. Health and Human Rights 20 (2): 205–14.

Carpenter, Morgan. 2018b. ‘Intersex/Differences of Sex Development and Mackenzie’s Mission’.

Community Affairs References Committee, Senate of Australia. 2013. Involuntary or Coerced Sterilisation of Intersex People in Australia. Canberra: Senate of Australia.

Compton, Julie. 2018. ‘“You Can’t Undo Surgery”: More Parents of Intersex Babies Are Rejecting Operations’. NBC News, 24 October 2018.

Davis, Georgiann. 2013. ‘The Social Costs of Preempting Intersex Traits’. The American Journal of Bioethics 13 (10): 51–53.

Dreger, Alice, Ellen K. Feder, and Anne Tamar-Mattis. 2012. ‘Prenatal Dexamethasone for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: An Ethics Canary in the Modern Medical Mine’. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (3): 277–94.

Gravholt, Claus H, Simon Chang, Mikkel Wallentin, Jens Fedder, Philip Moore, and Anne Skakkebæk. 2018. ‘Klinefelter Syndrome – Integrating Genetics, Neuropsychology and Endocrinology’. Endocrine Reviews, February.

Herlihy, Amy S., Jane L. Halliday, Megan L. Cock, and Robert I. McLachlan. 2011. ‘The Prevalence and Diagnosis Rates of Klinefelter Syndrome: An Australian Comparison’. Medical Journal of Australia 194 (1).

Hirvikoski, Tatja, Anna Nordenström, Anna Wedell, Martin Ritzén, and Svetlana Lajic. 2012. ‘Prenatal Dexamethasone Treatment of Children at Risk for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: The Swedish Experience and Standpoint’. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 97 (6): 1881–83.

Hudson Institute of Medical Research. 2018. ‘Discovery about How a Baby’s Sex Is Determined’. Hudson Institute of Medical Research (blog). 17 December 2018.

Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority. Undated. ‘PGD Conditions Licensed by the HFEA’.

Lohman, Eric, and Stephani Lohman. 2018. Raising Rosie Our Story of Parenting an Intersex Child. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F.L. 1990. ‘Will Prenatal Hormone Treatment Prevent Homosexuality?’. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 1 (4): 279–83.

National Health and Medical Research Council. 2017. ‘Ethical Guidelines on the Use of Assisted Reproductive Technology in Clinical Practice and Research’. National Health and Medical Research Council.

Nimkarn, Saroj, and Maria I. New. 2010. ‘Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency’. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1192 (1): 5–11.

Nisker, Jeff. 2013. ‘Informed Choice and PGD to Prevent “Intersex Conditions”’. The American Journal of Bioethics 13 (10): 47–49.

Organisation Intersex International Australia. 2013. ‘Submission on the Involuntary or Coerced Sterilisation of People with Disabilities in Australia’. Sydney: Organisation Intersex International Australia.

Poulain, Marine, Nelly Frydman, Clotilde Duquenne, Thierry N′Tumba-Byn, Alexandra Benachi, René Habert, Virginie Rouiller-Fabre, and Gabriel Livera. 2012. ‘Dexamethasone Induces Germ Cell Apoptosis in the Human Fetal Ovary’. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 97 (10): E1890–97.

Sparrow, Robert. 2013. ‘Gender Eugenics? The Ethics of PGD for Intersex Conditions’. The American Journal of Bioethics 13 (10): 29–38.

University of Queensland. Undated. NHMRC PROGRAM GRANT: Molecular genetics of sex determination and gonad development – UQ Researchers.

Varnham O’Regan, Sylvia. 2015. ‘New Research Provides Clues to Why People Are Born Intersex’. SBS News, 1 October 2015.

Yogyakarta Principles. 2017. The Yogyakarta Principles Plus 10: Additional Principles and State Obligations on the Application of International Human Rights Law in Relation to Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics, to Complement the Yogyakarta Principles.

More information

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